<computer> A type of computer which uses the ability of quantum systems,
such as a collection of atoms, to be in many different states at once. In
theory, such superpositions allow the computer to perform many different
computations simultaneously. This capability is combined with interference among
the states to produce answers to some problems, such as factoring integers, much
more rapidly than is possible with conventional computers. In practice, such
machines have not yet been built due to their extreme sensitivity to noise.
A quantum search algorithm for constraint satisfaction problems
exhibits the phase transition for NP-complete problems.
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