<algorithm> An optimisation of a tree which aims to keep equal numbers of
items on each subtree of each node so as to minimise the maximum path from the
root to any leaf node. As items are inserted and deleted, the tree is
restructured to keep the nodes balanced and the search paths uniform. Such an
algorithm is appropriate where the overheads of the reorganisation on update are
outweighed by the benefits of faster search.
A B-tree is a kind of balanced tree that can have more than two subtrees at each
node (i.e. one that is not restricted to being a binary tree).
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