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Online Physics Glossary / Terms / Dictionary

Physics Definitions Start from G

Gamma Ray - The highest energy (shortest wavelength) photons in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma rays are often defined to begin at 10 keV, although radiation from around 10 keV to several hundred keV is also referred to as hard x-rays.

Geomagnetic Storm - A worldwide disturbance of the Earth's magnetic field, associated with solar activity.

Geosynchronous Orbit - The orbit of a satellite that travels above the Earth's equator from west to east so that it has a speed matching that of the Earth's rotation and remains stationary in relation to the Earth (also called geostationary). Such an orbit has an altitude of about 35,900 km (22,300 miles).

GeV - billion electron volts (109)

Gluon - Current model of the atom in which electrons are located in regions according to rules of probability rather than in defined orbits.

Graviton - Carrier of the strong force which binds quarks together in protons, neutrons, and other particles.

Gravity - A mass less particle whose exchange between masses is thought to produce the gravitational force.

Galvanometer - Device used to measure very small currents.

Gamma Decay - Process by which a nucleus emits a gamma ray.

Gamma Particle - High energy photon emitted by a radioactive nucleus.

Gas - State of matter that expands to fill container.

Geiger-Mueller Tube - Device used to detect radiation using its ability to ionize matter.

General Theory of Relativity - Explanation of gravity and accelerated motion invented by Einstein.

Grand Unified Theories - Theories being developed that unify the stronger and electroweak forces into one force.

Gravitational Field - Distortion of space due to the presence of mass.

Gravitational Force - Attraction between two objects due to their mass.

Gravitational Mass - Ratio of gravitational force to object’s acceleration.

Gravitational Potential Energy - Change of energy of object when moved in a gravitational field.

Graviton - Particle that carries the gravitational force. Not yet observed.

Ground State - Lowest energy level of an electron in an atom.

Grounding - Process of connecting a charged object to Earth to remove objectís unbalanced charge.

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