CGS - Centimeter-Gram-Second
(abbreviated cm-gm-sec or cm-g-s). The system of measurement
that uses these units for distance, mass, and time.
Chromospheres - The layer of the solar atmosphere
that is located above the photosphere and beneath the transition
region and the corona. The chromospheres is hotter than the
photosphere but not as hot as the corona.
Circular Accelerator - A type physics research machine
that brings moving particles into collision with one another for
the purpose of studying the outcome. As opposed to a
fixed-target machine, which smashes moving particles into a
Collider - Radiation that is emitted when a
free electron is deflected by an ion, but the free electron is
not captured by the ion. Generally, it is a type of radiation
emitted when high energy electrons are accelerated. (German for
- The basic characteristic that
differentiates the six varieties of quark.
Contour Map - A map showing the intensity of
radiation as a function of position. Each contour line
corresponds to a specific intensity of radiation, with inner
contours corresponding to higher intensities than outer
contours. Therefore, a closed contour encircles a region where
the intensity of the emitted radiation is greater than or equal
to the intensity on the contour line. The contours outline the
shape of the emitting source.
Convection - The physical upwelling of hot
matter, thus transporting energy from a lower, hotter region to
a higher, cooler region. A bubble of gas that is hotter than its
surroundings expands and rises. When it has cooled by passing on
its extra heat to its surroundings, the bubble sinks again.
Convection can occur when there is a substantial decrease in
temperature with height, such as in the Sun's convection zone.
Convection Zone - A layer in a star in which
convection currents are the main mechanism by which energy is
transported outward. In the Sun, a convection zone extends from
just below the photosphere to about seventy percent of the solar
Corona - The outermost layer of the solar
atmosphere. The corona consists of a highly rarefied gas with a
low density and a temperature greater than one million degrees
Kelvin. It is visible to the naked eye during a solar eclipse.
Calorimeter - Device that isolates objects to
measure temperature changes do to heat flow.
Candela - Unit of luminous intensity.
Capacitance - Ratio of charge stored per
increase in potential difference.
Capacitor - Electrical device used to store
charge and energy in the electrical field.
Capillary Action - Rise of liquid in narrow tube due
to surface tension.
Efficiency - Ideal efficiency of heat engine
or refrigerator working between two constant temperatures.
Centripetal Force - Force that causes centripetal
Reaction - Nuclear reaction in which
neutrons are produced that can cause further reactions.
Charged - Object that has an unbalance of
positive and negative electrical charges.
Charging by Conduction - Process of charging by touching
neutral object to a charged object.
Charging by Induction - Process of charging by bringing
neutral object near charged object, then removing part of
resulting separated charge.
Chromatic Aberration - Variation in focal length of lens
with wavelength of light.
Circular Motion - Motion with constant radius of
curvature caused by acceleration being perpendicular to
Clock Reading - Time between event and a
reference time, usually zero.
Closed, Isolated System - Collection of objects such that
neither matter nor energy can enter or leave the collection.
Closed-pipe Resonator - Cylindrical tube with one end
closed and a sound source at other end.
Coefficient of Friction - Ratio of frictional force and the
normal force between two forces.
Coefficient of Linear Expansion - Change in length divided by
original length and by temperature change.
Coefficient of Volume Expansion - Change in volume divided by
original volume and by temperature change.
Coherent Waves - Waves in which all are in step;
are in phase.
Force - Attractive force between similar
Color - Two colors that, when added ,
produce white light. Two pigments, that when combined, produce
Compound Machine - Machine consisting of two or more
Effect - Interaction of photons, usually X
rays, with electrons in matter resulting in increased wavelength
of X rays and kinetic energy of electrons.
Concave Lens - Lens thinner in center than
edges; a diverging lens.
Concave Mirror - Converging mirror, one with
center of curvature on reflecting side of mirror.
Conduction Band - Energies of charge carries in a
solid such that the carries are free to move.
Conductor - Materials through which charged
particles move readily; or heat flow readily.
Conserved Properties - Property that is the same before
and after an interaction.
Consonance - Two or more sounds that, when
heard together, sound pleasant.
Constant Acceleration - Acceleration that does not change
Constant Velocity - Velocity that does not change in
Interference - Superposition of waves resulting
in a combined wave with amplitude larger than the component
Current - Motion of positive electrical
Converging Lens - Lens that causes light rays to
converge; usually a convex lens.
Convex Lens - Lens that is thicker in the
center than at edges.
Convex Mirror: Diverging mirror - Center of curvature is on side
opposite reflecting side of mirror.
Cosine - The ratio of the adjacent side to
Coulomb - Unit of electrical charge. Charge
caused by flow of one ampere for one second.
Crest of Wave - High point of wave motion.
Critical Angle - Minimum angle of incidence that
produces total internal reflection.
Crystal Lattice - Structure of solid consisting of
regular arrangement of atoms.