Addressing modes affect both the amount of time required for executing an instruction and the amount of memory required for its storage. For example, instructions that use implied or register addressing, execute very quickly since they deal directly with the processor’s hardware or with data already present in hardware registers. Most important, however is that the entire instruction can be fetched with a single memory access. The number of memory accesses required is the single greatest factor in determining execution timing. More memory accesses therefore require more execution time. A CALL instruction for example, requires five memory accesses: three to access the entire instruction and two more to push the contents of the program counter onto the stack.
The processor can access memory once during each processor cycle. Each cycle comprises a variable number of states. (See below and the appendix of “USING THE SDK-85 MICROPROCESSOR TRAINER”). The length of a state depends on the clock frequency specified for your system, and may range from 480 nanoseconds to 2 microseconds. Thus, the timing for a four state instruction may range from 1.920 microseconds through 8 microseconds. (The 8085 have a maximum clock frequency of 5 MHz and therefore a minimum state length of 200 nanoseconds.)